Once you have the subnetting basics down and understand how to divide a network into two or more networks you are ready to determine the optimal subnet mask for a given scenario and how to calculate the usable range of IP addresses that can be used in each of those subnets. This course starts by reviewing and working through a detailed subnetting example that has specific requirements.
Next the course introduces block sizes which tell you how many addresses are within the network. It also explains how the first subnet address is reserved to refer to the network itself and the last address is reserved as the broadcast address, so that within any given netblock two less usable addresses are unavailable for use. Finding the block size is covered using two methods.
VLSM lets you allocate IP addresses more efficiently by adding multiple layers to the addressing hierarchy. This course concludes by describing the role of VLSM and how to use VLSM options to allocate more than one subnet mask within a network and to subnet an already subnetted network address.
- determine the subnets that will be produced in a given scenario
- identify the usable range of addresses within a subnet
- given an example, determine the block size of a subnet
- determine the subnet ID, broadcast address, and usable address range of a given subnet
- identify the considerations involved in addressing a broadcast domain
- given an address from class A, B, or C, determine the network ID, directed broadcast, and first and last hosts
- recognize the benefits of Variable Length Subnet Masking
- identify the best way to gain a specific number of hosts
When physical access has been enabled, you must secure access to the switch via the console port and the vty ports. You must also filter access to network devices from remote or internal locations.This course describes the steps that are required to secure local and remote access to network. It then goes on to describing the need for securing unused ports. It presents port security as a solution to the problem of maintaining control of utilized ports. The need to disable unused services is illustrated, and configuration examples show how to disable them. Why the correct system time is important and what can happen if the system time is not correct is explained. NTP is introduced, with a configuration example detailed.
Once you understand how ACLs operate, you can implement them for an important network security mechanism: traffic filtering. Standard ACLs provide only limited traffic filtering. Extended ACLs can provide more precise traffic-filtering capabilities. This course also describes access-list configuration mode. This course enables you to define named ACLs, which are identified with descriptive names instead of numbers. The course also shows how to verify that ACLs are functioning properly and discusses some common configuration errors.
- describe how to secure access to the privileged EXEC mode
- recognize how to secure console access to a network device
- describe how to secure remote access to a network device
- describe how to configure a switch so it can be accessed remotely
- specify why external authentication should be used for larger networks
- configure a login banner
- describe the characteristics of port security
- recognize how to configure and verify port security
- identify best practices for disabling unused services
- recognize how to configure and verify basic NTP
- implement and configure port security on a switch in a given scenario
- describe ACL operations
- configure named ACLs in a given scenario
- describe ACL configuration guidelines
- monitor and verify ACLs in a given scenario
- identify how to resolve common ACL configurations
- configure filtering of management traffic with ACLs
- troubleshoot ACLs
As an enterprise grows beyond a single location, it becomes necessary to interconnect LANs in various locations to form a WAN. Several technologies are involved in the functioning of WANs. This course describes the technologies, functions, and characteristics of WANs.
Routing is the process of determining where to send data packets that are destined for addresses outside the local network. Routers gather and maintain routing information to enable the transmission and receipt of these data packets. Routing information takes the form of entries in a routing table, with one entry for each identified route. The router can use a routing protocol to create and maintain the routing table dynamically so that network changes can be accommodated whenever they occur. To effectively manage an IP network, you must understand the operation of dynamic routing protocols and the impact that they have on an IP network. This course discusses the need for routing protocols and describes the differences between interior and exterior routing protocols and also between link-state and distance vector routing protocols. The operation of link-state protocols is also explained.
OSPF is an IGP that was designed by the IETF. Because OSPF is a widely deployed standard protocol, knowledge of its configuration and maintenance is essential. This course describes the function of OSPF and explains how to configure a single-area OSPF network on a Cisco router.
- distinguish between types of WANs
- describe how to configure a point-to-point Ethernet emulated WAN link
- identify what functionality dynamic routing protocols provide
- identify link-state routing protocols
- distinguish between types of dynamic routing protocols
- identify information that must match between routers to form an adjacency
- describe how the SPF algorithm works
- recognize the function of the router ID in an OSPF network
- configure a single-area OSPF network
- optimize single-area OSPF
- verify a single-area OSPF configuration
- configure a single-area OSPF network in a given scenario
Data networks and the Internet provide seamless and reliable communication between people. Applications such as e-mail, web browsers, and instant messaging allow people to use computers and networks to send messages and find information. Data from applications is packaged, transported, and delivered to the appropriate server or application on the destination device. The processes that are described in the TCP/IP transport layer accept data from the application layer and prepare it for addressing at the Internet layer. The transport layer is responsible for the overall end-to-end transfer of application data. The transport layer also encompasses functions to enable multiple applications to communicate over the network at the same time on a single device.
This layer can use error-processing mechanisms to ensure that all of the data is received reliably and in order by the correct application. For the Internet and internal networks to function correctly, data must be delivered reliably. You can ensure reliable delivery of data through development of an application and by using the services that are provided by the network protocol. In the TCP/IP and OSI models, the transport layer manages the process of reliable data delivery. The transport layer hides the details of any network-dependent information from the higher layers to provide transparent data transfer. TCP/IP UDP and TCP therefore operate between the network layer and the application layer. Learning how UDP and TCP function between the network layer and the transport layer provides a more complete understanding of how data is transmitted in a TCP/IP networking environment. This course describes the function of the transport layer and how UDP and TCP operate.
Routing is the process that forwards data packets between networks or subnetworks, using a TCP/IP Internet layer device, that is, a router. The routing process uses network routing tables, protocols, and algorithms to determine the most efficient path for forwarding an IP packet. Routers gather routing information and update other routers about changes in the network. Routers greatly expand the scalability of networks by terminating Layer 2 collisions and broadcast domains. Understanding how routers function will help you to understand the broader topic of how networks are connected and how data is transmitted over networks. This course describes the operation of routing.
After hardware installation, when a Cisco router is turned on, it goes through its startup procedure. Once the operating system is loaded, you can start configuring the router. This course concludes by describing basic configurations, how to configure interfaces, and how to use Cisco Discovery Protocol to discover connected neighboring devices.
- describe the basic functions of the transport layer
- recognize the characteristics of the UDP transport protocol
- recognize the characteristics of the TCP transport protocol
- use the debug command to observe port activity
- describe the physical characteristics of a router and its function in the IP packet delivery process
- describe the function of routing tables and the different types of routes
- recognize the characteristics of dynamic routing protocols
- recognize how to start and perform initial configuration tasks on a Cisco IOS router
- recognize the commands used to configure interfaces on Cisco routers
- verify the router interface configuration in a given scenario
- configure a router interface with a description and an IP address in a given scenario
- assign subnetted IP addresses in a given scenario
- recognize how to discover neighbor IP addresses using CDP
Understanding the packet delivery process is a fundamental part of understanding networking devices. You must understand host-to-host communications to administer a network. This course provides a step-by-step analysis of host-to-host communications and the packet-delivery process over a routed network. The course also illustrates the role of Layer 2 and Layer 3 addresses in packet delivery, as well as the role of ARP.
Routing is the process by which a packet moves from one location to another. In the terms of computer networks, it is the process of determining where to send data packets destined for addresses outside of the local network. To effectively manage an IP network, you must understand how both static and dynamic routing operate and the impact that they have on IP networks. This course compares static and dynamic routes, illustrates the steps for static route configuration and verification, and demonstrates the difference between setting up next hop IP and exit interface for default routes.
- describe layer 2 addressing
- describe layer 3 addressing
- describe the role of ARP
- populate a frame header with a MAC address in host-to-host packet delivery over a routed network
- match the frame components with the information it contains when the IP packet is delivered over a routed network
- compare static and dynamic routes
- identify situations suitable for static routes
- identify the static route configuration steps
- distinguish between the components of a default static route
- identify the most believable source when learning a destination network from multiple sources
- configure static default routes
- configure static routes
When you understand how a switch and router operate, how they communicate, and how to configure basic security, you can move on to understanding an expanded network. VLANs contribute to network performance by separating large broadcast domains into smaller segments. A VLAN allows a network administrator to create logical groups of network devices. These devices act as if they were in their own independent network, even though they share a common infrastructure with other VLANs. This course explains how to implement and verify VLANs and trunking.
Routing is the process of determining where to send data packets that are destined for addresses outside of the local network. Routers gather and maintain routing information to enable the transmission and receipt of data packets. For traffic to cross from one VLAN to another, a Layer 3 process is necessary. This course describes the basics of inter-VLAN routing operations, including subinterfaces and router on a stick.
Originally, network administrators had to manually configure the host address, default gateway, and other network parameters on each host. However, DHCP provides these parameters dynamically. This lesson describes the use of a Cisco router as a DHCP server, which decreases the administrative burden of assigning IP addresses by using DHCP.
- describe the purpose and functions of VLANs
- identify the feature that's required for multiple VLANs to span multiple switches
- describe how VLANs and trunking work with IEEE 802.1Q
- implement and verify VLANs
- identify the IEEE 802.1Q trunking combinations that facilitate communication
- describe VLAN design considerations
- assign a subinterface to a VLAN using 802.1Q trunking
- configure and verify VLANS and inter-VLAN routing
- sequence the steps in DHCP operation
- configure a Cisco IOS device as a DHCP server
- identify the mode to enter to enable the DHCP relay agent mechanism
- configure a Cisco IOS device as a DHCP server in a given scenario
The growth of the Internet and the adoption of networking over the past 20 years are pushing the IP version 4 (IPv4) to the limits of its addressing capacity and its ability for continued growth. To sustain the evolution of the Internet and the ability to scale networks for future demands requires a limitless supply of IP addresses and improved mobility. In response, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) developed a next-generation protocol, IP version 6 (IPv6). IPv6 satisfies the increasingly complex requirements of hierarchical addressing that IPv4 does not satisfy. With a 128-bit address length, the IPv6 address space is significantly larger and more diverse, and thus is more complicated to manage. This course describes IPv6 main features, addresses, and basic configuration.
The header format for each IP packet carries crucial information for the routing and processing of each packet payload. Header construction plays an important role in the efficiency and extensibility of the network. ICMP plays an important role in troubleshooting networks, facilitating simple tools such as ping or determining that a packet could not reach its destination. This lesson describes both IPv6 and ICMPv6.
Any device that attaches to a network goes through numerous processes to identify itself and to obtain services from the network. This premise is true in either an IPv4 or IPv6 network. However, people who design and manage IPv6 networks will discover that although the processes that are used in IPv6, have some similarities to those that are used in IPv4, they are different. Understanding these processes is fundamental to properly supporting an IPv6-enabled environment.
This course describes IPv6 neighbor discovery, which is the process in which neighbors discover each other and autoconfigure addresses. The course also explains how stateless autoconfiguration helps to automatically assign IPv6 addresses to devices in the network.
Routing protocols must support IPv6 to facilitate the successful transport and operations of IPv6-generated traffic. OSPF is a widely used IGP. Understanding the differences between OSPF version 2 (OSPFv2) and OSPF version 3 (OSPFv3) are required for the successful deployment and operation of an IPv6 network using OSPF for routing. This course completes by describing how to configure and verify static IPv6 routes and OSPFv3.
- describe the features of IPv6 that make it an improvement on IPv4
- recognize the shorthand notations for IPv6 addresses
- describe the types of addresses supported by IPv6
- match the basic types of IPv6 unicast addresses with their descriptions
- recognize the different ways IPv6 addresses can be allocated
- recognize the configuration commands for enabling IPv6
- enable IPv6 and assign an IPv6 address with EUI64
- match the IPv6 header fields with their correct descriptions
- recognize the different ICMPv6 message types
- describe the functions of neighbor discovery in IPv6
- describe stateless autoconfiguration
- configure stateless autoconfiguration
- identify the command to configure IPv6 static routing
- describe the OSPF features that have been updated for IPv6
- configure IPv6 for static routing and OSPFv3 routing